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Watch Our Expert Dr. Reshmie Ramautarsing talk about Human Papillomavirus Infection among Men who have Sex with Men. MSM are highly recommended to get regular Anal Pap smear screening. For men infected with HIV Infection, HPV can cause a coinfection leading to anal cancer.
Genital HPV Infection
What is genital HPV infection?
Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it.
HPV is not the same as herpes or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). These are all viruses that can be passed on during sex, but they cause different symptoms and health problems.
What are the signs, symptoms and potential health problems of HPV?
Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems from it. In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears HPV naturally within two years.
Signs and symptoms of HPV-related problems:
Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or groups of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. Health care providers can diagnose warts by looking at the genital area during an office visit. Warts can appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner—even if the infected partner has no signs of genital warts. If left untreated, genital warts might go away, remain unchanged, or increase in size or number. They will not turn into cancer.
Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced. For this reason, it is important for women to get regular screening for cervical cancer. Screening tests can find early signs of disease so that problems can be treated early, before they ever turn into cancer.
Other HPV-related cancers might not have signs or symptoms until they are advanced and hard to treat. These include cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and head and neck. For signs and symptoms of these cancers, [see www.cancer.org]
RRP causes warts to grow in the throat. It can sometimes block the airway, causing a hoarse voice or troubled breathing.
How do people get HPV?
HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex and genital-to-genital contact. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners—even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms.
A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV.
Very rarely, a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass HPV to her baby during delivery. In these cases, the child can develop RRP.
How does HPV cause genital warts and cancer?
HPV can cause normal cells on infected skin to turn abnormal. Most of the time, you cannot see or feel these cell changes. In most cases, the body fights off HPV naturally and the infected cells then go back to normal. But in cases when the body does not fight off HPV, HPV can cause visible changes in the form of genital warts or cancer. Warts can appear within weeks or months after getting HPV. Cancer often takes years to develop after getting HPV.
How can people prevent HPV?
There are several ways that people can lower their chances of getting HPV:
How can people prevent HPV-related diseases?
There are ways to prevent the possible health effects of HPV, including the two most common problems: genital warts and cervical cancer.
• Preventing genital warts: A vaccine (Gardasil) is available to protect against most genital warts in males and females (see above).
• Preventing Cervical Cancer: There are two vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil) that can protect women against most cervical cancers (see above). Cervical cancer can also be prevented with routine cervical cancer screening and follow-up of abnormal results. The Pap test can find abnormal cells on the cervix so that they can be removed before cancer develops. An HPV DNA test, which can find HPV on a woman's cervix, may also be used with a Pap test in certain cases. Even women who got the vaccine when they were younger need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccine does not protect against all cervical cancers.
• Preventing Anal and Penile Cancers: There is no approved screening test to find early signs of penile or anal cancer. Some experts recommend yearly anal Pap tests to screen for anal cancer in gay and bisexual men and in HIV-positive persons. This is because anal cancer is more common in those populations. These tests are not routinely recommended for anal cancer screening because more information is still needed to find out if they are effective.
• Preventing Head and Neck Cancers: There is no approved test to find early signs of head and neck cancer, but tests are available by specialized doctors for persons with possible symptoms of these cancers. [see www.cancer.org]
• Preventing RRP: Cesarean delivery is not recommended for women with genital warts to prevent RRP in their babies. This is because it is not clear that cesarean delivery prevents RRP in infants and children.
Is there a test for HPV?
The Pap test (sometimes called a Pap smear or cervical cytology) is a way to examine cells collected from the cervix (the lower, narrow end of the uterus). The main purpose of the Pap test is to detect cancer or abnormal cells that may lead to cancer. It can also find noncancerous conditions, such as infection and inflammation.
Is there a treatment for HPV or related diseases?
There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the diseases that HPV can cause:
Visible genital warts can be removed by the patient him or herself with medications. They can also be treated by a health care provider. Some people choose not to treat warts, but to see if they disappear on their own. No one treatment is better than another.
Cervical cancer is most treatable when it is diagnosed and treated early. But women who get routine Pap tests and follow up as needed can identify problems before cancer develops. Prevention is always better than treatment. [see www.cancer.org]
Other HPV-related cancers are also more treatable when diagnosed and treated early.
RRP can be treated with surgery or medicines. It can sometimes take many treatments or surgeries over a period of years.
What is Anal Dysplasia ?
Anal dysplasia is a pre-cancerous condition which occurs when the mucosa lining of the anal canal undergo abnormal changes. During this condition, lesion, or visible pattern of clustered abnormal cells, appear. These cells may then progress from low-grade lesions to high-grade lesions.
Symptoms include anal warts in and around the anus.
Anal dysplasia is most commonly linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), a usually sexually-transmitted disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease. Roughly 80% of people who have had one or two lifetime sex partners and 100% of people who have had five lifetime sex partners have had HPV infection, which may persist for life.
Where can I get more information?
Men's Health Clinic at Anonymous Clinic
CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN)